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Modern Upto 1948  


British army under Col.Harcourt begins its March from Ganjam in the South, and occupies the mugalbandi districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, thereby completing the conquesting of Orissa.

The first book to be printed in Oriya "New Testament" published by the serampore Baptist Mission Press.


Under the leadership of Bakshi Jagabandhu Biddyadhar, the paikas of khurda rises up against the British in what is known as the famous pikas revolt of 1817. It is primarily an agrarian revolt against thef wrong policies of land settlement and revenew administration adpoted by the British.


Missionaries arrive in Orissa.


Missionaries esgtablish Cuttack Mission Press.


Oriya is adopted as the language of the court replacing persian.


Fakir Mohan was born in a poor family of Mallikashpur in Balasore town on 13th Jan 1843. he had lost his (father and mother) parents during his childhood. Later he was nourished and educated by his grand mother .  He started his schooling from his village school. Due to poverty he started teaching on a salary of Rs 2.50 per month.
          Day by day he became active and popular all over. He was appointed as a Headmaster of a big school on a salary of Rs 10 per month.   
At that time ,there was not a single Oriya printed book except scripts on palm leaves and ancient mythology which were not available to all students. As a result the students were reading either Parsi or  Bnegali which disheartened Fakir Mohan very much. Hence, he started writing 2 to 3 oriya small books for the importance of oriya language which was appreciated by all.
    During the period eminent poet Radhanath Roy was a teacher in Balasore Zilla school. Fakir Mohan consituted a "Sahitya Sabha" with Radhanath Roy , which discussed about the necessity of writing more oriya books and to publish it.
    At that time there was no printing press in Balasore. Motivating some rich persons , Fakir  Mohan established a printing press and published one monthly magazine named "Bodhdayini" or "Balasore Sambad Bahini" of whom he was the editor. The first history book in oriya was written by Fakir Mohan and received award of Rs 1000 /- from British Government.
    On the advice of Beam Saheb (Balasore Magistrate) Fakir Mohan quitted his school service and became the Dewan of Niligiri. He was then transferred to Dompada as Manager from Niligiri. After wards he shouldered the responsibillity of Gadjat administration of Dhenkanal, Dasapada and Keonjhar.
     During imprisonment he wrote some of his great novels and poems like:- Mamu,Lachama, Cha mann aotho Gunth, Rebati etc.


Madhusudan Das(Oriya: ଶ୍ରୀଯୁକ୍ତ ମଧୁସୂଦନ ଦାସ (ମଧୁ ବାବୁ)) was born on 28 April 1848 in a village called Satyabhamapur, 20 kilometres from Cuttack. His father Choudhury Raghunath Das and mother Parbati Debi named him Gobindaballabh. Later they changed his name to Madhusudan. He is also popularly known as Utkal Gourav. He had two older sisters and a younger brother named Gopalballabh.

Madhusudan Das had his early education in the village school, learning all subjects, including Persian, from a maulvi. After his early education, he moved to Cuttack High School (later known as Ravenshaw Collegiate School) which offered an English education. Against all odds, after passing the Entrance examination in 1864, he went to Calcutta (now Kolkata) for College Education braving many adverse situations. He lived there for fifteen years (1866 to 1881), completing his MA and BL degrees. He returned to Orissa in 1881, and settled down at Cuttack to pursue his legal profession. He was the first graduate, MA and BL of Orissa. He always had the feeling that as the State's first graduate he had to fulfill some great national command.

Missionaries bring out the first Oriya Magazine -"JNANARUNA"

Bhaktakabi Madhusudan Rao is born.

Appearance of saint poet Bhima Bhoi.

Surendra of Sambalpur, Chaki Khuntia of Puri, and ARjun Singh of Podahat join hands with sepoys in what is known as the country-wide "sepoy Mutiny:.

Poet Gangadhar Mehar is born.

A failure of reign in 1865 resulted in the loss of usual crops and brought about a catastropic famine in 1966-67 whioch laid to the death of about one million people in Orissa. Gross negligence, indifferent administration, lack of communication and in adequate attention caused atleast one man every three in Orissa die in famine. Cuttack printing press, the second in the state is established by the initiative of the people of the province. The first news paper Utkal Deipika is brought out by the Cuttack printing company.

It was during this late 19th century that a new conciousness began to take shape. The growth of modern education rise of a middle class inteligetia advent of the printing press publication of the journals and periodicals nationalistic literary activities of writers like Fakir Mohan Senapati and Radhanath Ray, rise of numerous socio religious and cultural socities formation of the Indian National Congress all these took the shape of a political movement to untile all the Oriya-speaking areas under one administration.

Radhanath Ray is one of the eminent poet of this century. He is also known as "Kabibaro" by the masses. He was born at kedarpur in Soro of Balasore district. He  was born on 28th sep. 1848. His father was Sri Sundra Naryan Roy and his mother was Jarini Devi. He lost his mother in his boyhood.                


At the age of six he started his primary schooling and got admitted in Balasore Zilla School at 10  years old. Math's was his favorite subject. At the age of sixteen he got admission in primary college Calcuttta (Kolkota), but due to financial crisis he quitted his study and joined Balasore  Zilla School as a teacher with the salary Rs 30 /- per month. Madhusudan Rao was one of his student during his service at Puri Zilla School . Both them spent their time together discussing literature. At this time he translated Meghdoot. While he was the deputy inspector in Balasore district , Madhusudan was appointed as school teacher. During this period there was a crisis of oriya literature books for the students. In order to avoid the crisis both of them wrote a poetry book named "Kabita Balli" which  was been later included in the courses of the studies for the school students.
                  During 1891 Radhanath was promoted to inspector  and in 1896 he was felicitated as "Raibahadur" by the Britishers. Radhanath Roy retired during 1903 and left this world on 16th April 1908. Among the valuabe books he had written are Meghdoot, Kedargouri, Chandra Bhaga, Nandi Kesari, Usha, Chilika, Durbar, Tulasi Stabaka, Mahajatra etc.



Modern After 1948


With the coming of independence, the princely states in and around Orissa surrender their sovereignty to the Governemtn of India. By the states merger (Governers provinces) order, the princely states of Orissa are completely merged with the Orissa on 19th August 1949, and the new orissa becomes nearly twice its size by the addition of more people to its population.

Formation of the second (post independence) ministry under the leadership of Nabakrushna Choudhury.


The third(post - independence) ministry headed by Dr.H.K.Mahatab assumes offices.


Orissa Board of Secondary Education is formed.


Orissa Sahitya Academy is Founded. Complition of Hirakud Dam.


Establishment of Rourkela STeel Plant.


The fourth(post - independence) ministry formed under the leadership of Dr.H.K.Mahatab

Introduction of the Orissa land Reforms Act of 1960. Seeking comperhensive reform in the land revenew and tenancy laws in the state, it imposes a celling on land to possess by a land owner and also provides for the distribution of the celling surplus land by the state.


Orissa STate Electricity Board (OSEB) is set up.

Congress froms the fifth (post-independence) ministry under the leadership of Biju Pattnaik. Shri Pattnaik initiates several industrial projects for rapid industrialisation of Orissa. Most important and ambitious of the projects are Paradeep Port and the express Highway connecting the port with the mining areas. Bali Mela and Talchera projects, MIG Factory at Sunabeda.

Congress froms the sixth (post-independence) ministry under the leadership of Biren Mitra of Congress.

Congress froms the seventh(post-independence) ministry under the leadership of Sadasive Tripathy assumes office.

The Orissa University of AGriculture and Technology is founded at Bhubaneswar. Orissa Indistrial Development corporation and the Orissa Small scale industries corporation are set up.

Establishment of two new univesities at Berhampur and Sambalpur. A new part called Jena Congress is formed under the leadership of Harekrushna Mahatab.

Complition of the Paradeep Port.

As the result of an indecisive verdict in the mid term poll held in the March, 1971, the Swatantra Party, the Jharkhand party and the utkal Congress party form a collition Govt. (ninth post-independence ministry under the leadership of Biswanath Das.

Mrs. Nandini Satpathy takes over as the chief of the tenth ministry formed after large scale defections from the ruling coalision.

Imposition of presidents rule on 3rd March, 1973.

Mrs Nandini Satpathy forms eleventh ministry.

Mr.Binayak Acharya is sworn in as the chief minister of the twelth minister. The ministry remains in office only 123 days. In a mid term poll the Janta Party laid by Shri Biju Pattnaik secures 110 seats out of 147 seats. Mr.Nilamani Routray is made the chief minister. The minisgtry remain office till 1980.

Sri Jagannath Sanskrit University is established at Puri.

Congress party wins a resounding victory to form of the fourteenth minstry in the state. Mr. Janaki Ballav Pattnaik becomes the chief minister.

Dooradarshan television transmission center is established at Cuttack.

Congress party wins an imposing victory in the electronics to the 9th Orissa Legislative Assembly Mr. Janaki Ballab Pattnaik becomes the chief of the fifteeenth ministry.

Mr. Hemananda Biswal becomes the Sixteenth Chief minister after the registration of Shri Janaki Ballav Pattnaik.

Under the dynamic leadership of Shri Biju Pattnaik the Janta DAl wins an astounding victory in the elections to the tenth Orissa Legislative Assembly.


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